Molecular Biology & Transcriptomics
Transcriptomics is an organized and quantitative analysis of all transcripts present in a cell or a tissue under a define set of conditions (the transcriptome). The major focus of interest in transcriptomics is the mRNA population, although there is increasing interest in noncoding RNAs. The focus on mRNA shows its relevance to molecular biology. The composition of the transcriptome varies markedly depending on cell type, growth or development stage and on environmental signals and conditions. The transcriptome is the full set of RNA transcripts produced from the genome at any given time. It includes multiple transcripts that may arise from a single gene through the use of alternative promoters and alternative processing as well as the many regulatory noncoding RNAs. With few deviations the genome of an organism is identical in all cell types under all circumstances. Transcriptomics contribute global and quantitative investigation of transcription under an explicit set of conditions. The key techniques used are based on nucleic acid hybridization and PCR. DNA microarray is used to study cancer tissues for accurate diagnosis and appropriate therapy. Transcriptome is preferred for all quantitative analysis of gene expression as transcription remains vital in molecular biology.