Recombinant DNA technology
The potential to sequence and handle the genomes of microorganisms, animals and plants has led to major approaches in our conception of cell biology. Major promotion in molecular biology became possible in the late 1970s with the growth of recombinant DNA technology. This has enabled genes to be isolated, sequenced, modified and transferred from one organism to another. The everlasting alteration of genetic disease by gene therapy is also now a realistic possibility. In 2010, Venter and his colleagues created chromosomal DNA of a bacterium and inserted it into an ‘empty cell’ which created new living organism. Thus, molecular biology and the technologies that have been fabricated have played a central role in the enlargment of human, animal, medicine, agriculture and the biotechnology industry and are now set to meet the provocation of global health, environmental change and food security that we face in the 21st century.